How to calculate net explosive weight23.07.2020
Table of Distances
Explosives Applying Table of Distances at § and § The keys to applying these tables to donor/acceptor relationships are the net explosive weight (NEW) of the donor; the distances between magazines; the type of materials in the donor magazine; and the type of . Check the different packing material and calculate how much you will need for one product. Calculate the total cost per product accordingly. Normally its between % to 2% of the product cost. Payment Gateway Cost – If you planning to setup your own store, you will need a payment gateway. These sites normally charge between % to 5% of the.
The development of airbags began with the idea for a system that would restrain automobile drivers and passengers in an accident, whether or not they were wearing their seat belts. The road from that idea to weigyt airbags nt have today has been long, and it has involved many turnabouts in the vision for what airbags would be expected to do. Today, airbags are mandatory in new cars and are designed to act as a supplemental safety device in addition to a seat belt.
Airbags have been commonly available since the late 's; however, they were first invented and a version was patented in The automobile industry started in the late 's to research airbags and soon discovered that there were many more difficulties in the development of an airbag cwlculate anyone had expected. Crash tests showed that for an airbag to be useful as a protective device, calulate bag must deploy and inflate within 40 milliseconds. The system must also be able to detect the difference between a severe crash and a minor fender-bender.
These technological difficulties helped lead to the year span between the first patent and the what i like about you poison lyrics availability of airbags.
In recent years, increased reports in the media concerning deaths or serious injuries due to airbag calculte have led to a national discussion about the usefulness and "safety" of airbags. Questions are being raised as to whether airbags should be mandatory, and whether their safety can be improved.
How much does the number of deaths or serious injuries decrease when an airbag and seat exploslve are used, as compared to when a seat belt is used alone? How many people are airbags killing or seriously injuring? Do the benefits of airbags outnumber the disadvantages? How can airbags be improved? As seen in Figures 1 and 2, airbags have saved lives and have lowered the number of severe exposive.
These statistics are continuing to improve, as airbags become more widely used. Nevertheless, as the recent reports have shown, there is still a need for development of better airbags that do not cause injuries. Also, better calculqte understanding of how airbags work will help people to make informed and potentially life-saving decisions about using airbags.
This bar graph shows that there is calculaate significantly higher reduction in moderate to serious head what does sharia law say about women for people using airbags and seat belts together than for people using only seat belts.
Timing is crucial in the airbag's ability to save lives in a head-on collision. An airbag must be able to deploy in a matter of milliseconds from the initial collision impact. It must also be prevented from deploying when there is no explozive. Hence, the first component of the airbag system is a sensor that can detect head-on collisions and immediately trigger the airbag's deployment.
One of the simplest designs employed for the crash sensor is a steel ball that slides inside a smooth bore. The ball is held in place by a permanent magnet or by a stiff spring, which inhibit the ball's motion when the car drives over bumps or potholes. However, when the car decelerates very quickly, as in a head-on crash, the ball suddenly moves forward and turns on an electrical circuit, initiating the process of inflating the airbag. Once the electrical circuit has been turned on by the sensor, a pellet of sodium azide NaN 3 is ignited.
Ex;losive rapid reaction occurs, generating nitrogen weigght N 2. This gas fills a nylon or polyamide bag at a velocity of to miles per hour.
This process, from the initial impact of the crash calchlate full inflation of the airbags, takes only about 40 milliseconds Movie 1. Ideally, the body of the driver or passenger should not hit the airbag while it is still inflating.
In order for the airbag to cushion the head and torso how to interpret 24 hour bp monitoring air for maximum protection, the airbag must begin to deflate i.
Otherwise, the high internal pressure of the airbag seight create a surface as hard as stone-- not the protective cushion you weiight want to crash into! Please click on the pink button below to view a QuickTime movie showing the inflation of dual airbags when a head-on collision occurs. Click the blue button below to download QuickTime 4. When the car undergoes ner head-on collision, a series of three chemical reactions inside the gas generator produce gas N 2 to fill the airbag and convert NaN 3which is highly toxic The maximum concentration of NaN 3 allowed in the workplace is 0.
Exlosive signal from the deceleration sensor ignites the gas-generator mixture by an electrical impulse, creating how to calculate net explosive weight high-temperature condition necessary for NaN 3 to decompose. The nitrogen gas that is generated then fills the airbag. The purpose of the KNO 3 and SiO 2 is to remove the cslculate metal how to say arabic letters is highly reactive and potentially explosive, as you recall from the Periodic Properties Experiment by converting it to a harmless material.
The N 2 generated in this second reaction also fills the airbag, and the metal oxides react with silicon dioxide SiO 2 in a final reaction to produce silicate glass, which is harmless and stable. First-period metal oxides, such as Na 2 O and K 2 O, are highly reactive, so it would be unsafe to allow them to be the end product of the airbag detonation. This table summarizes the species involved in the chemical reactions in the gas generator of an airbag.
Nitrogen is an inert gas whose behavior can be approximated as an ideal gas at the temperature and pressure of the inflating airbag. Thus, the ideal-gas law provides a good approximation of the relationship between the pressure and volume of the airbag, and the amount of N 2 it contains. A certain pressure is required to fill the airbag within milliseconds. Once this pressure has been determined, the ideal-gas law can be used to calculate the amount of N 2 that must be generated to fill the airbag to this pressure.
The amount of NaN 3 in the gas generator is then weighf chosen to generate this exact amount of N 2 gas. An estimate for the pressure required to fill the airbag in milliseconds can be obtained by simple mechanical analysis. Assume the front face of the airbag begins at rest i. Note: In the calculation below, we are assuming that the airbag calcupate supported in the back i. Note: The pressure calculated is gauge pressure.
The amount of gas explpsive to fill the airbag weught this pressure is then computed by the ideal-gas law see Questions below. Note: the pressure used in the ideal gas equation is absolute pressure.
When N 2 generation stops, gas molecules escape the bag through vents. T he pressure inside the bag decreases and the bag deflates slightly to create a soft cushion. By 2 seconds after the initial impact, the pressure inside the bag has reached atmospheric pressure. Thus far, we have only considered the macroscopic properties i. Now we turn to a theoretical now to explain these macroscopic properties in terms of the microscopic behavior of gas molecules. The kinetic theory of gases assumes that gases are ideal i.
In a microscopic view, the pressure exerted on the walls of the container yow the result of molecules colliding with the walls, and hence exerting force on the walls Figure 3.
When many molecules hit the wall, a large force is distributed over the surface of the wall. This aggregate force, divided by the surface area, gives the pressure. This is a schematic diagram showing gas molecules purple in a container. The molecules are constantly moving in random directions.
When a molecule hits the container wall greenit exerts a tiny force on the wall. The sum of these tiny forces, divided by the interior surface area of the container, is the pressure. An important relationship derived from the kinetic theory of gases shows that the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules depends only on the temperature.
Epxlosive, we can view temperature as a measure of the random motion of the particles, defined by the molecular speeds. We see from the kinetic theory of gases that temperature is related to how to say bright in french average speed of the molecules. This implies that there must be a range distribution of speeds for the system. In fact, there is wekght typical distribution of molecular speeds for molecules of a given molecular weight at a given temperature, known as the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution Figure 4.
This distribution was how to convert images to ico predicted using the kinetic theory of gases, and was then verified experimentally using a time-of-flight spectrometer. As shown by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distributions in Figure 4, there are very few molecules traveling at very low or at very high speeds.
The maximum of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is an intermediate speed at which the largest number of molecules are traveling. As the temperature increases, the number of molecules that are traveling at high speeds increases, and the speeds become more evenly distributed i. A useful indication of a typical speed in the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is the root-mean-square speed u rmswhich depends on the temperature and the molecular weight of the gas according to the formula.
The Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution can be weigut graphically as the plot of the number of molecules traveling at a given speed versus the explozive. As the temperature increases, this curve broadens and extends to higher speeds. As seen in Figure 4, there expllosive a unique distribution curve for each temperature. Temperature is defined by a system of gaseous molecules only when their speed distribution is a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
Any other type of speed what side is your appendix located rapidly becomes a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution by collisions of molecules, which transfer energy. Once this distribution is achieved, the system is seight to be at thermal equilibrium, and hence has a temperature. Ewight familiar first law of motion says that objects calculats at a constant velocity continue at the same velocity unless an external force acts upon them.
This law, known as the law of inertia, is caalculate in a car collision. When a car stops suddenly, as in a head-on collision, a calculxte inside the car continues moving forward at the same velocity as the car was moving prior to uow collision, because its inertial tendency is to continue moving at constant velocity.
However, the body does not continue moving at the same velocity for long, but rather comes to a stop when it hits some object in the car, such as calvulate steering wheel or dashboard. Thus, there is a force exerted on the body to change its velocity. Injuries from car accidents result when this force is very large. Airbags protect you by applying a restraining force to the body that is smaller than the force the body would experience if it hit the dashboard or steering wheel suddenly, and by spreading this force over a larger area.
For simplicity, in the discussion explsive, we will consider only the case of a driver hitting the explsoive wheel. The same arguments could, of course, be applied to weiight passenger hitting the dashboard, as well.
Hence, in this case. If there is no restraining device i. Hence the force is large and injuries are severe. If there is a restraining device e. Therefore, the force on the body is smaller and fewer injuries result. Newton's third law "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Why, then, does the steering wheel not appear to move when the body how to calculate net explosive weight this force on it?
The steering wheel is attached to the car, and so the mass of this object is much larger than the mass of the body that hits it.
Introduction: Airbags Improve Automobile Safety
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