How to write a scientific journal article26.03.2021
How to Write a Scientific Abstract
The primary criteria for good scientific writing are accuracy and clarity. If your article is interesting and written with style, fine. But these are subsidiary virtues. First strive for accuracy and clarity. The first step toward clarity is good organization, and the standardized format of a journal article . Mar 01, · Pick a scientific article in your field. Read the paper with the abstract covered. Then try to write an abstract based on your reading. Compare your abstract to the author’s. Repeat until you feel confident. If you’ve not yet published a paper, this exercise will help you hone the skills necessary to write a concise and informative abstract.
As such, this guide aims to explain 1 why you should care about writing a powerful cover letter, 2 what you should include in it, and 3 how you should structure it. The last segment will include a free downloadable template submission cover letter with detailed how-to explanations and some useful phrases. Sadly, we must admit that part of the decision-making process of whether to accept a manuscript is based on a business model.
Editors must select articles that will interest their readers. In other words, your paper, if published, must make them money. In addition to economic factors, many editors use the cover letter to screen whether authors can follow basic instructions. This is not the impression you want to give editors! No matter what other advice you read in the vast webosphere, make sure you prioritize the information requested how to make a omelete the editors.
As we explained above, failure to include required statements will lead to automatic rejection. With that said, below is a list of the most common elements you must include and what information you should NOT include:.
You should use formal language in your cover letter. Since most submissions are delivered electronically, the template below is in a modified e-mail format.
However, if you send your cover letter on letterhead PDF or hard copy by mailmove your contact information to the upper-left corner of the page unless you use pre-printed letterhead, in which case your contact information should be centered at the top of the letter. Also, websites may be outdated, so call the journal to confirm to whom you should address your cover letter when in doubt.
Many editors will find this insulting, especially given that many of them are female! We examined the efficacy of using X factors as indicators for depression in What is the currency of bosnia and herzegovina subjects in Z regions through a month prospective cohort study and can confirm that monitoring the levels of X is critical to identifying the onset of depression, regardless of geographical influences.
TIP: Useful phrases to discuss your findings and conclusion include:. Our findings will allow your readers to [identify the aspects of the journal's Aim and Scope that align with your paper]. TIP: Include context about why this research question had to be addressed. TIP: If your paper was prompted by prior research, state this. While pursuing this project, we discovered [some new understanding that made you decide the information needed to be shared with your peers via publication.
Although prior research has identified a few methods that could be used in depression screening, such as X and Y, the applications developed from those findings have been cost-prohibitive and difficult to administer on a national level. Thus, our findings will allow your readers to understand the factors involved in identifying the onset of depression in teenagers better and develop more cost-effective screening procedures that can be employed nationally. In so doing, we hope that our research advances the toolset needed to combat the concerns preoccupying the minds of many school administrators.
TIP: You should mention similar studies recently published by your target journal, if any, but list no more than five. TIP: If you have previously publicly shared some form or part of your research elsewhere, state so.
To the best of our knowledge, none of the above-suggested persons have any conflict of interest, financial or otherwise. TIP: Include 3—5 reviewers since it is likely that the journal will use at least one of your suggestions. Additionally, to the best of our knowledge, the named authors what r u doing in malayalam no conflict of interest, financial or otherwise.
Remember Me. Sign in. Sign in with Facebook Sign in with Google. Forgot your password? Sign in Register. Academic Resources. Dear Dr. TIP: Useful phrases to discuss your findings and conclusion include: Our findings confirm that… We have determined that… Our results suggest… We found that… We illustrate… Our findings reveal… Our study clarifies… Our research corroborates… Our results establish… Our work substantiates… [Para.
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What should I include in a cover letter?
Mar 26, · Be assured that the format for writing scientific names is internationally consistent regardless of the intended journal. The rules presented above will help. In the next article in this series, we will discuss tips on how to write scientific names of bacterial species in a journal manuscript. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is the system we will use. Jan 12, · Being familiar with the structure and purpose of reviews will help you navigate scientific literature more confidently, but remember that it is not likely you will be writing a review for publication in a journal until well into your career. Sometimes, journal editors will invite scientists to write a review for their journal.
The scientific format may seem confusing for the beginning science writer due to its rigid structure which is so different from writing in the humanities. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner.
Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. For example, many people skim Titles to find out what information is available on a subject.
Others may read only titles and Abstracts. Those wanting to go deeper may look at the Tables and Figures in the Results , and so on. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper beyond title skimming , they will likely get the key results and conclusions.
Top of page. Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title , Authors and Affiliation , Abstract , Introduction , Methods , Results , Discussion , Acknowledgments , and Literature Cited , which parallel the experimental process.
This is the system we will use. This website describes the style, content, and format associated with each section. The sections appear in a journal style paper in the following prescribed order:. Experimental process Section of Paper What did I do in a nutshell?
Abstract What is the problem? Introduction How did I solve the problem? Materials and Methods What did I find out? Results What does it mean? Discussion Who helped me out? Acknowledgments optional Whose work did I refer to? Literature Cited Extra Information Appendices optional. Main Section Headings: Each main section of the paper begins with a heading which should be capitalized , centered at the beginning of the section, and double spaced from the lines above and below.
Do not underline the section heading OR put a colon at the end. Subheadings: When your paper reports on more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize the presentation. Subheadings should be capitalized first letter in each word , left justified, and either bold italics OR underlined. Function : Your paper should begin with a Title that succinctly describes the contents of the paper. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper: the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc.
A majority of readers will find your paper via electronic database searches and those search engines key on words found in the title. The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. The title should be short and unambiguous, yet be an adequate description of the work. A general rule-of-thumb is that the title should contain the key words describing the work presented.
Remember that the title becomes the basis for most on-line computer searches - if your title is insufficient, few people will find or read your paper. For example, in a paper reporting on an experiment involving dosing mice with the sex hormone estrogen and watching for a certain kind of courtship behavior, a poor title would be:.
It is very general, and could be referring to any of a number of mouse behaviors. A better title would be :. Because the key words identify a specific behavior, a modifying agent, and the experimental organism. If possible, give the key result of the study in the title, as seen in the first example. Similarly, the above title could be restated as:. Strategy for Writing Title.
Function : An abstract summarizes, in one paragraph usually , the major aspects of the entire paper in the following prescribed sequence:. Whereas the Title can only make the simplest statement about the content of your article, the Abstract allows you to elaborate more on each major aspect of the paper. The length of your Abstract should be kept to about words maximum a typical standard length for journals. Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper i. The Abstract helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper, or it may be the only part they can obtain via electronic literature searches or in published abstracts.
Therefore, enough key information e. How do you know when you have enough information in your Abstract? A simple rule-of-thumb is to imagine that you are another researcher doing an study similar to the one you are reporting. If your Abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there?
Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Write your Abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Use past tense. Maximum length should be words, usually in a single paragraph. Strategy : Although it is the first section of your paper, the Abstract, by definition, must be written last since it will summarize the paper.
To begin composing your Abstract, take whole sentences or key phrases from each section and put them in a sequence which summarizes the paper. Then set about revising or adding words to make it all cohesive and clear. As you become more proficient you will most likely compose the Abstract from scratch.
Check your work : Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper. Confirm that all the information appearing the abstract actually appears in the body of the paper. Quite literally, the Introduction must answer the questions, " What was I studying? Why was it an important question? What did we know about it before I did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Style : Use the active voice as much as possible.
Some use of first person is okay, but do not overdo it. Structure : The structure of the Introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied. Organize the information to present the more general aspects of the topic early in the Introduction, then narrow toward the more specific topical information that provides context, finally arriving at your statement of purpose and rationale.
A good way to get on track is to sketch out the Introduction backwards ; start with the specific purpose and then decide what is the scientific context in which you are asking the question s your study addresses. Once the scientific context is decided, then you'll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the Introduction should begin.
Top of Page. This section is variously called Methods or Methods and Materials. Function : In this section you explain clearly how you carried out your study in the following general structure and organization details follow below :.
Organize your presentation so your reader will understand the logical flow of the experiment s ; subheadings work well for this purpose.
Each experiment or procedure should be presented as a unit, even if it was broken up over time. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. In general, provide enough quantitative detail how much, how long, when, etc. You should also indicate the statistical procedures used to analyze your results, including the probability level at which you determined significance usually at 0.
Style : The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others.
Avoid use of the first person in this section. Remember to use the past tense throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future.
The Methods section is not a step-by-step, directive, protocol as you might see in your lab manual. Strategy for writing the Methods section.
Describe the organism s used in the study. This includes giving the 1 source supplier or where and how the orgranisms were collected , 2 typical size weight, length, etc , 3 how they were handled, fed, and housed before the experiment, 4 how they were handled, fed, and housed during the experiment. In genetics studies include the strains or genetic stocks used.
For some studies, age may be an important factor. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? The description must include both physical and biological characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. Include the date s of the study e. It is often a good idea to include a map labeled as a Figure showing the study location in relation to some larger more recognizable geographic area.
Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.
Describe your experimental design clearly. Be sure to include the hypotheses you tested, controls , treatments , variables measured, how many replicates you had, what you actually measured , what form the data take, etc.
Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, NOT by an ambiguous, generic name or number e. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
A general experimental design worksheet is available to help plan your experiments in the core courses. Describe the procedures for your study in sufficient detail that other scientists could repeat your work to verify your findings. Foremost in your description should be the "quantitative" aspects of your study - the masses, volumes, incubation times, concentrations, etc.
When using standard lab or field methods and instrumentation, it is not always necessary to explain the procedures e.