What causes air pollution in urban areas

23.03.2021 By JoJozil

what causes air pollution in urban areas

Air Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution

Causes of air pollution. (PM 10), which have an increasing impact on urban air quality. In addition, pollutants from these sources may not only prove a problem in the immediate vicinity of these sources, but can be transported long distances. lead to the formation of ozone. Ozone is a secondary pollutant, which often impacts rural areas. EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION: A MAJOR PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERN. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use and urban outdoor air pollution are estimated to be responsible for million premature deaths worldwide every year and % of the global burden of disease. 1. More than half of the global burden of disease from air pollution is borne.

CNN India has urbn again topped an annual list of cities with the worst air quality in the world, according to a new report, while Pollurion cities have continued to show improvements from the previous year. More Videos How deadly is air pollution? See how China has reacted to Chloe Zhao's historic Oscars win.

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More than people injured in clashes in Jerusalem. Patients die gasping for air as India shatters global daily Covid cases. CNN goes to front line of How many pounds equal to 1 kg key battleground. The British Royal family explained: Who's the 'firm' and how does it work? Ghaziabad, a satellite city of the capital New Delhi in northern Uttar Pradesh state, is ranked as the world's most polluted city, with an average PM 2.

That's far more than double the level which the US Environmental Protection Agency regards as healthy -- it's nine times more. And in November, a public health emergency was declared after the air quality index AQI level exceeded in certain parts of New Delhi, which was more than three times the "hazardous" level. Researchers from IQAir -- a global air quality information and tech company -- gleaned data for the report from on the ground monitoring stations that measure levels of fine particulate matter, known as PM 2.

Read More. The microscopic particles, which are smaller than 2. Exposure to such particles has been poolution to lung and heart disorders and can impair cognitive and immune functions. According to the World Health Organization, air pollution causes an estimated 7 million premature deaths a how to create a creative title for an essay globally, mainly as a result of increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancers and respiratory kn.

South Asia continues to be of particular concern, with 27 of polluion 30 most polluted cities in India, Pakistan or Bangladesh. Pakistan's Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Raiwind, are among the ten most polluted cities, and the major population centers of New Delhi, Lahore, and Dhaka rank 5th, 12th and 21st respectively, according to AirVisual data.

Regionally, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East are worst affected overall, with only six of cities included meeting WHO annual targets, the report said. However, South Asia has seen improvements from the previous year. The report points to economic slowdown, favorable weather conditions, and efforts towards cleaning the air as reasons behind the decrease.

For example, the most polluted city, Ghaziabad, had an average AQI of But arexs it was A Pakistani barber shaves a customer alongside a road amid heavy fog and smog conditions in Lahore. Climate crisis and urbanization. The air quality data shows, "clear indications that climate change can directly increase the risk of exposure to air pollution" the report said, noting it impacts air quality in many cities through desertification and increased frequency of forest fires and sandstorms.

Greenhouse gas emissionswith the burning of fossil arews a key driver of the climate crisis, is also a major cause of dirty air.

Many countries are still dependent on coal for their energy production, the biggest contributor to PM 2. China, for example, is the world's largest producer and consumer of coal. Exacerbating what is dvd- rw drive problem poplution rapid urbanization in industrializing Southeast Asian cities, which is also a major cause of air pollution and poses severe challenges to managing PM 2.

Indonesia's Jakarta areaas Vietnam's Hanoi uran Beijing for the first time among ai world's most polluted capital cities, "in a historic shift reflecting the region's rapid industrialization," the report said. The two capitals have annual PM 2. Oil and gas production is contributing even more to global cauwes than was thought, study finds. However, aig not all bad news. People power is bringing about change, he said. This is an example how air quality data has helped to arezs government to improve the environment.

And in the past year residents of Jakarta have sued the government over worsening air pollution in the city. Jakarta is Southeast Asia's most polluted city and the fifth most polluted capital -- up from 10th position inaccording to the report.

It's on track to become the world's biggest megacity by shat, with a population of What we'll have to endure as the climate crisis gets worse Bright spots. China's capital Beijing has more than halved its annual PM 2.

Dust and sandstorms in the desert city of Hotan, in western China's Xinjiang region, make it the world's second most polluted city inwith an average AQI of China struggling to kick its coal habit despite Areeas big climate pledges.

More monitoring data is important to inform communities about waht quality of the air they xauses breathing and helps tackle air pollution globally, the report said. Yet there is still a large gap in air quality data for many parts of the world, the report said, meaning the total number of cities exceeding the WHO PM 2.

For example, Africa, a continent of 1.

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Dec 14,  · There are many other major causes of air pollution. The below-listed point will give you an insight into the various other causes of air pollution. Causes of Air Pollution In India: Currently in India air pollution has drastically increased and is said . Mar 26,  · I will be discussing. Definition. Types Of Pollution. Causes. Effects. Measures. Statistical data. 3. Definition• Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change, in the form of killing of life,toxicity of environment, damage to ecosystem and aesthetics of our surrounding. Air pollution hotspots are areas where air pollution emissions expose individuals to increased negative health effects. They are particularly common in highly populated, urban areas, where there may be a combination of stationary sources (e.g. industrial facilities) and mobile sources (e.g. cars and trucks) of pollution.

Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings , or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are different types of air pollutants, such as gases such as ammonia , carbon monoxide , sulfur dioxide , nitrous oxides , methane and chlorofluorocarbons , particulates both organic and inorganic , and biological molecules.

Air pollution may cause diseases, allergies and even death to humans; it may also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment for example, climate change , ozone depletion or habitat degradation or built environment for example, acid rain.

Both human activity and natural processes can generate air pollution. Air pollution is a significant risk factor for a number of pollution-related diseases , including respiratory infections , heart disease , COPD , stroke and lung cancer. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, and the individual's health status and genetics.

Local laws where well enforced in cities have led to strong public health improvements. At the international level some of these efforts have been successful, for example the Montreal Protocol which successful at reducing release of harmful ozone depleting chemicals or Helsinki Protocol which reduced sulfur emissions, while other attempts have been less rapid in implementation, such as international action on climate change.

An air pollutant is a material in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced by processes such as ash from a volcanic eruption.

Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhausts or sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly.

Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ground level ozone is a prominent example of a secondary pollutant. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.

Persistent organic pollutants POPs are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. Because of this, they have been observed to persist in the environment, to be capable of long-range transport, bioaccumulate in human and animal tissue, biomagnify in food chains, and to have potentially significant impacts on human health and the environment. Air pollutant emission factors are reported representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant.

These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant e. Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages.

There are 12 compounds in the list of persistent organic pollutants. Dioxins and furans are two of them and intentionally created by combustion of organics, like open burning of plastics.

These compounds are also endocrine disruptors and can mutate the human genes. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a wide range of industrial sources. Air pollution risk is a function of the hazard of the pollutant and the exposure to that pollutant.

Air pollution exposure can be expressed for an individual, for certain groups e. For example, one may want to calculate the exposure to a hazardous air pollutant for a geographic area, which includes the various microenvironments and age groups. This can be calculated [2] as an inhalation exposure.

This would account for daily exposure in various settings e. The exposure needs to include different age and other demographic groups, especially infants, children, pregnant women and other sensitive subpopulations. The exposure to an air pollutant must integrate the concentrations of the air pollutant with respect to the time spent in each setting and the respective inhalation rates for each subgroup for each specific time that the subgroup is in the setting and engaged in particular activities playing, cooking, reading, working, spending time in traffic, etc.

For example, a small child's inhalation rate will be less than that of an adult. A child engaged in vigorous exercise will have a higher respiration rate than the same child in a sedentary activity. The daily exposure, then, needs to reflect the time spent in each micro-environmental setting and the type of activities in these settings.

A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time.

Radon Rn gas, a carcinogen , is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde H 2 CO gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds VOCs as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners , incense , and other scented items.

Controlled wood fires in cook stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of harmful smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Carbon monoxide poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors or in a confined space, such as a tent. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas and hydrogen sulfide , out of interiors.

Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene , or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities.

Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea shortness of breath and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer.

As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According to the World Health Organization WHO , these may be defined as asbestosis , lung cancer , and peritoneal mesothelioma generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos.

Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms on walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants , soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen , dust, and mold.

Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. Even at levels lower than those considered safe by United States regulators, exposure to three components of air pollution, fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and ozone , correlates with cardiac and respiratory illness. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency department visits, more hospital admissions and premature death.

The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Children aged less than five years that live in developing countries are the most vulnerable population in terms of total deaths attributable to indoor and outdoor air pollution.

The World Health Organization estimated in that every year air pollution causes the premature death of some 7 million people worldwide. India has the highest death rate due to air pollution. In December air pollution was estimated to kill , people in China each year. Annual premature European deaths caused by air pollution are estimated at , [53] , [49] An important cause of these deaths is nitrogen dioxide and other nitrogen oxides NOx emitted by road vehicles.

Urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1. Children are particularly at risk due to the immaturity of their respiratory organ systems. The US EPA estimated in that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology Tier 2 could result in 12, fewer premature mortalities , 15, fewer heart attacks , 6, fewer emergency department visits by children with asthma, and 8, fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States.

The US EPA has estimated that limiting ground-level ozone concentration to 65 parts per billion, would avert 1, to 5, premature deaths nationwide in compared with the ppb standard. The agency projected the more protective standard would also prevent an additional 26, cases of aggravated asthma, and more than a million cases of missed work or school. A new economic study of the health impacts and associated costs of air pollution in the Los Angeles Basin and San Joaquin Valley of Southern California shows that more than 3, people die prematurely approximately 14 years earlier than normal each year because air pollution levels violate federal standards.

The number of annual premature deaths is considerably higher than the fatalities related to auto collisions in the same area, which average fewer than 2, per year. Diesel exhaust DE is a major contributor to combustion-derived particulate matter air pollution. In several human experimental studies, using a well-validated exposure chamber setup, DE has been linked to acute vascular dysfunction and increased thrombus formation. The mechanisms linking air pollution to increased cardiovascular mortality are uncertain, but probably include pulmonary and systemic inflammation.

A study by Greenpeace estimates there are 4. Air pollution is also emerging as a risk factor for stroke, particularly in developing countries where pollutant levels are highest. Research has demonstrated increased risk of developing asthma [77] and COPD [78] from increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Additionally, air pollution has been associated with increased hospitalization and mortality from asthma and COPD.

A study conducted in — in the wake of the Great Smog of compared London residents with residents of Gloucester, Peterborough, and Norwich, three towns with low reported death rates from chronic bronchitis. All subjects were male postal truck drivers aged 40 to Compared to the subjects from the outlying towns, the London subjects exhibited more severe respiratory symptoms including cough, phlegm, and dyspnea , reduced lung function FEV 1 and peak flow rate , and increased sputum production and purulence.

The differences were more pronounced for subjects aged 50 to The study controlled for age and smoking habits, so concluded that air pollution was the most likely cause of the observed differences. It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis , by living in a more urban environment serious health hazards become more apparent.

Studies have shown that in urban areas patients suffer mucus hypersecretion, lower levels of lung function, and more self-diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.

A review of evidence regarding whether ambient air pollution exposure is a risk factor for cancer in found solid data to conclude that long-term exposure to PM2.

Exposure to PM2. The review further noted that living close to busy traffic appears to be associated with elevated risks of these three outcomes — increase in lung cancer deaths, cardiovascular deaths, and overall non-accidental deaths.

The reviewers also found suggestive evidence that exposure to PM2. In , a large Danish epidemiological study found an increased risk of lung cancer for patients who lived in areas with high nitrogen oxide concentrations.

In this study, the association was higher for non-smokers than smokers. In the United States, despite the passage of the Clean Air Act in , in at least million Americans were living in non-attainment areas —regions in which the concentration of certain air pollutants exceeded federal standards. Protective measures to ensure children's health are being taken in cities such as New Delhi , India where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the "pea-soup" smog.

Prenatal exposure to polluted air has been linked to a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders in children. For example, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH was associated with reduced IQ scores and symptoms of anxiety and depression. In Los Angeles, children who were living in areas with high levels of traffic-related air pollution were more likely to be diagnosed with autism between years of age.

Some PAHs are considered endocrine disruptors and are lipid soluble. When they build up in adipose tissue, they can be transferred across the placenta.