What equipment did roald amundsen take to antarctica11.12.2020
Richard E. Byrd
The first verified expedition to the North Pole was conducted by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen in Amundsen did not use a ship or dogsleds—he flew over the pole on the airship Norge. The Norge, lifted by hydrogen and powered by a diesel engine, flew over the North Pole on its route from the Norwegian Arctic to the U.S. state of Alaska. Roald Amundsen wearing polar clothing in a publicity photograph taken in Norway. The anorak is made of wolfskin of Inuit design, it is an over-the-head style with .
Intwo rival expeditions set out to discover Antarctica—but only one could be first. Two hundred years since the discovery of Antarctica, the frozen continent is known as a hotbed of scientific exploration and a place of adventure and icy peril. But who really discovered the new continent? But early attempts to find the continent had flopped. Captain James Cook had spent three years looking for it during his second voyage from The expedition took Cook and his men into the Antarctic Circle, but the explorer eventually called it quits after failing to find the continent.
Cook was convinced there was more to the story, though. Discover the deadly disease that haunted sailors during the Age of Discovery. Then, the search for Antarctica heated up again thanks to international rivalries and the potential profits from seal skins hunted in frigid waters. Global competition for territory and economic dominance prompted explorers from Russia, England, and the United States toward Antarctica. InRussia tasked Fabian von Bellingshausen with going further south than Cook.
On January 27,he looked toward solid ice that was likely an ice shelf attached to Antarctic land now known as Queen Maud Land. Unbeknownst to him, he had company: Three days later, British naval officer Edward Bransfield spotted the how to desensitize yourself from emotions of the Antarctic Peninsula.
See Antarctic explorers' huts frozen in time. The race to find Antarctica sparked competition to locate the South Pole —and stoked another rivalry. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen found it on December 14, Just over a month later, Robert Falcon Scott found it, too. He turned back with disastrous results. Yet when Amundsen spoke to the Royal Geographic Society in a ceremony honoring his achievement, writes historian Edward J.
Antarctica may be chilly, but the passions it stokes in the hearts of explorers and their champions are fiery indeed. All rights reserved. Who really discovered Antarctica? Depends who you ask. Erebus in Antarctica. After the continent's discovery init took nearly years for explorers to reach the pole. Members from Robert Falcon Scott's polar expedition stand on the shore and wave to departing comrades.
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December 5th - Set sail for Antarctica, last contact with the outside world for 18 months, last stores and equipment are taken onto the sea-ice and a camp established. Roald Amundsen, South Pole Expedition - Norwegian Antarctic Expedition. Mar 03, · The Norwegian Captain Roald Amundsen was already a celebrated explorer. He had sailed through the North West Passage () and was one of the first men to winter south of the Antarctic Circle. The Terra Nova Expedition, officially the British Antarctic Expedition, was an expedition to Antarctica which took place between and Led by Captain Robert Falcon Scott, the expedition had various scientific and geographical vitoriayvitorianos.com wished to continue the scientific work that he had begun when leading the Discovery Expedition from to , and wanted to be the first to.
October 25, — March 11, was an American naval officer and explorer. Aircraft flights in which he served as a navigator and expedition leader crossed the Atlantic Ocean, a segment of the Arctic Ocean, and a segment of the Antarctic Plateau. Byrd claimed that his expeditions had been the first to reach both the North Pole and the South Pole by air.
His claim to have reached the North Pole is disputed. He was a descendant of one of the First Families of Virginia. He was the brother of Virginia Governor and U. Senator Harry F. Byrd , a dominant figure in the Virginia Democratic Party from the s until the s; their father served as Speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates for a time.
He would later name a region of Antarctic land he discovered " Marie Byrd Land " after her. By late , the Byrd family moved into a large brownstone house at 9 Brimmer Street in Boston's fashionable Beacon Hill neighborhood  that had been purchased by Marie's father, a wealthy industrialist. Byrd was friends with Edsel Ford and his father Henry Ford , whose admiration of his polar exploits helped to gain Byrd sponsorship and financing for his various polar expeditions from the Ford Motor Company.
Byrd attended the Virginia Military Institute for two years and transferred to the University of Virginia , before financial circumstances inspired his starting over and taking a commission to the United States Naval Academy , where he was appointed as a midshipman on May 28, Although he was allowed to remain at the Academy, his injuries eventually led to his forced retirement from the Navy in During service in the Caribbean Sea, Byrd received his first letter of commendation, and later a Silver Lifesaving Medal , for twice plunging fully clothed to the rescue of a sailor who had fallen overboard.
This assignment brought Byrd into contact with high-ranking officials and dignitaries, including then Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin Roosevelt. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant junior grade on June 8, Leahy , who served as chief of staff to President Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II.
On March 15, , Byrd, much to his frustration, was medically retired on three-quarters pay for an ankle injury he suffered on board Mayflower. Shortly thereafter, on December 14, , he was assigned as the inspector and instructor for the Rhode Island Naval Militia in Providence, Rhode Island. Abbot , the adjutant general of Rhode Island, for making great strides in improving the efficiency of the militia, and on April 25, , was promoted to captain by act of the Rhode Island General Assembly in recognition of his flight to the North Pole in He was then recalled to active duty and was assigned to the Office of Naval Operations and served in a desk job as secretary and organizer of the Navy Department Commission on Training Camps.
In the autumn of , he was sent to naval aviation school at Pensacola, Florida. He qualified as a naval aviator number in June In that assignment, he was promoted to the permanent rank of lieutenant and the temporary rank of lieutenant commander.
After the war, Byrd volunteered to be a crew member in the U. Navy's aerial transatlantic crossing. This mission was historic, as it was the first time the Atlantic Ocean was crossed by an aircraft.
It was decided that only men who had not served overseas were be allowed on the mission. Unfortunately for Byrd, his tour of duty in Newfoundland was considered overseas service.
Byrd was, however, able to make a valuable contribution, as his expertise in aerial navigation resulted in his appointment to plan the flight path of the mission. In , Byrd volunteered to attempt a solo nonstop crossing of the Atlantic Ocean, prefiguring Charles Lindbergh 's historic flight by six years.
Byrd was then assigned to the ill-fated dirigible ZR-2 formerly known by the British designation of R As fate would have it, Byrd missed his train to take him to the airship on August 24, The airship broke apart in midair, killing 44 of 49 crew members on board. Byrd lost several friends in the accident, and was involved in the subsequent recovery operations and investigation.
The accident affected him deeply and inspired him to make safety a top priority in all of his future expeditions. Due to reductions in the Navy after the First World War, Byrd reverted to the rank of lieutenant at the end of Byrd commanded the aviation unit of the arctic expedition to North Greenland led by Donald B. MacMillan from June to October Bennett served as his pilot in his flight to the North Pole the next year. Balchen, whose knowledge of arctic flight operations proved invaluable, was the primary pilot on Byrd's flight to the South Pole in The flight left from Spitsbergen Svalbard and returned to its takeoff airfield, lasting 15 hours and 57 minutes, including 13 minutes spent circling at their Farthest North.
When he returned to the United States from the Arctic, Byrd became a national hero. Congress passed a special act on December 21, , promoting him to the rank of commander and awarding both Floyd Bennett and him the Medal of Honor. Since , doubts have been raised, defenses made, and heated controversy arose over whether or not Byrd actually reached the North Pole.
In , Norwegian-American aviator and explorer Bernt Balchen cast doubt on Byrd's claim on the basis of his knowledge of the airplane's speed. Bennett, though, had started a memoir, given numerous interviews, and wrote an article for an aviation magazine about the flight before his death that all confirmed Byrd's version of the flight.
The release of Byrd's diary of the May 9, , flight revealed erased but still legible sextant sights that sharply differ from Byrd's later June 22 typewritten official report to the National Geographic Society. Byrd took a sextant reading of the Sun at GCT. Accepting that the conflicting data in the typed report's flight times indeed require both northward and southward ground speeds greater than the flight's mph airspeed , a Byrd defender posits a westerly-moving anticyclone that tailwind-boosted Byrd's ground speed on both outward and inward legs, allowing the distance claimed to be covered in the time claimed the theory is based on rejecting handwritten sextant data in favor of typewritten alleged dead-reckoning data  .
This suggestion has been challenged by Dennis Rawlins, who adds that the sextant data in the long-unavailable original official typewritten report are all expressed to 1 second, a precision not possible on Navy sextants of and not the precision of the sextant data in Byrd's diary for or the flight, which was normal half or quarter of a minute of arc. If Byrd and Bennett did not reach the North Pole, then the first flight over the pole occurred a few days later, on May 12, , with the flight of the airship Norge that flew from Spitsbergen Svalbard to Alaska nonstop with a crew including Roald Amundsen , Umberto Nobile , Oscar Wisting , and Lincoln Ellsworth.
In , Byrd announced he had the backing of the American Trans-Oceanic Company , which had been established in by department-store magnate Rodman Wanamaker for the purpose of building aircraft to complete nonstop flights across the Atlantic Ocean. Byrd was one of several aviators who attempted to win the Orteig Prize in for making the first nonstop flight between the United States and France.
During a practice takeoff with Anthony Fokker at the controls and Bennett in the co-pilot seat, the Fokker Trimotor airplane, America , crashed, severely injuring Bennett and slightly injuring Byrd.
As the plane was being repaired, Charles Lindbergh won the prize by completing his historic flight on May 21, Byrd continued with his quest to cross the Atlantic nonstop, naming Balchen to replace Bennett, who had not yet fully recovered from his injuries, as chief pilot.
On board was mail from the US Postal Service to demonstrate the practicality of aircraft. Arriving over France the next day, they were prevented from landing in Paris by cloud cover; they returned to the coast of Normandy and crash-landed near the beach at Ver-sur-Mer known as Gold Beach during the Normandy Invasion on June 6, without fatalities on July 1, Wilbur at the dinner.
Byrd wrote an article for the August edition of Popular Science Monthly in which he accurately predicted that while specially modified aircraft with one to three crewmen would fly the Atlantic nonstop, another 20 years were needed before it would be realized on a commercial scale.
In , Byrd began his first expedition to the Antarctic involving two ships and three airplanes: Byrd's flagship was the City of New York a Norwegian sealing ship previously named Samson that had come into fame as a ship some claimed was in the vicinity of the Titanic when the latter was sinking and the Eleanor Bolling named after Byrd's mother ; a Ford Trimotor airplane called the Floyd Bennett named after the recently deceased pilot of Byrd's previous expeditions flown by Dean Smith ; a Fairchild FC-2W2 , NX, built , named Stars And Stripes now displayed at the National Air and Space Museum 's Steven F.
A base camp named " Little America " was constructed on the Ross Ice Shelf , and scientific expeditions by snowshoe , dog sled , snowmobile , and airplane began. Siple went on to earn an doctorate and was probably the only person, other than Byrd himself, to participate in all five of Byrd's Antarctic expeditions.
Photographic expeditions and geological surveys were undertaken for the duration of that summer, and constant radio communications were maintained with the outside world. After their first winter, their expeditions were resumed, and on November 28, , the first flight to the South Pole and back was launched. They had difficulty gaining enough altitude, and they had to dump empty gas tanks, as well as their emergency supplies, to achieve the altitude of the Polar Plateau, but they were ultimately successful.
As a result of his achievement, Byrd was promoted to the rank of rear admiral by a special act of Congress on December 21, As he was only 41 years old at the time, this promotion made Byrd the youngest admiral in the history of the United States Navy. He is one of only three persons, one being Admiral David Dixon Porter and the other being arctic explorer Donald Baxter MacMillan , to have been promoted to the rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy without having first held the rank of captain.
After a further summer of exploration, the expedition returned to North America on June 18, Unlike the flight, this expedition was honored with the gold medal of the American Geographical Society. This was also seen in the film With Byrd at the South Pole , which covered his trip there. Byrd, by then an internationally recognized, pioneering American polar explorer and aviator, served for a time as Honorary National President — of Pi Gamma Mu , the international honor society in the social sciences.
He carried the society's flag during his first Antarctic expedition to dramatize the spirit of adventure into the unknown, characterizing both the natural and social sciences.
To finance and gain both political and public support for his expeditions, Byrd actively cultivated relationships with many powerful individuals, including President Franklin Roosevelt, Henry Ford, Edsel Ford, John D.
Rockefeller, Jr. As a token of his gratitude, Byrd named geographic features in the Antarctic after his supporters. On his second expedition in , Byrd spent five winter months alone operating a meteorological station, Advance Base, from which he narrowly escaped with his life after suffering carbon monoxide poisoning from a poorly ventilated stove.
Unusual radio transmissions from Byrd finally began to alarm the men at the base camp, who then attempted to go to Advance Base. The first two trips were failures due to darkness, snow, and mechanical troubles. Finally, Thomas Poulter , E. The men remained at Advance Base until October Poulter and Byrd. The rest of the men returned to base camp with the tractor. It is also commemorated in a U. Byrd's third expedition was the first one financed and conducted by the United States government.
The project included extensive studies of geology, biology, meteorology, and exploration. The innovative Antarctic Snow Cruiser was brought with the expedition, but broke down shortly after arriving. The expedition continued in Antarctica without him until the last of its participants left Antarctica on March 22, He was recalled on active duty on March 26, and served as the confidential advisor to Admiral Ernest J.
From to he joined the South Pacific Island Base Inspection Board, which had important missions to the Pacific, including surveys of remote islands for airfields.
On one assignment he visited the fighting front in Europe. He was released from active duty on October 1, Byrd's fourth Antarctic expedition was code-named Operation Highjump. The total number of personnel involved was over 4, The armada arrived in the Ross Sea on December 31, , and made aerial explorations of an area half the size of the United States, recording 10 new mountain ranges.
The interview appeared in the Wednesday, March 5, , edition of the Chilean newspaper El Mercurio , and read in part:.