What is affirming the consequent23.07.2020
What is Affirming the Consequent?
Aug 29, · Affirming the consequent is a fallacious form of reasoning in which the converse of a true conditional statement (or “if-then” statement) is said to be true. In other words, it is assumed that if the proposition “if A, then B” is true, then “if B, then . Apr 22, · Affirming The Consequent is a logical fallacy that assumes that the converse of a true statement is also true.
You can think of it as the invalid version of modus ponens. Now, below is the invalid form that you get when you try to infer the antecedent by affirming the consequent:. Remember, what it means to say that an argument is invalid is that IF the premises are all true, the conclusion could still be false. In other words, the truth of the premises hhe not guarantee the truth of the conclusion. I have a fever. Therefore, I have the flu. Maybe the battery is dead, maybe the engine is shot.
Is this inference valid or invalid? To be sure wha arguments like these you need to draw upon your knowledge of conditional claims and conditional argument forms. You identify the antecedent and consequent of the conditional claim, rewrite the argument in standard form, and see whether it fits one of the valid or invalid argument forms that you know.
You gave me a call. Therefore, you got home before 9 PM. Introduction to Formal Fallacies. What are Formal Fallacies? Quiz: Argument Forms Using Disjunctions.
Discuss the Quiz Questions in This Section. Modus Ponens Modus Tollens Quiz: Modus Ponens and Modus Tollens. Hypothetical Syllogism Affirming the Consequent Denying the Antecedent What to do if you owe irs money Argument Forms Using Conditionals.
Argument Forms Using Generalizations. Quiz: Argument Forms Using Generalizations. What's Next? Affirming the Consequent. Below is modus ponenswhich is valid: 1. A Therefore, B Now, below is the invalid form that you get when you try to infer the antecedent by affirming coonsequent consequent: 1. Another example: 1.
Mar 10, · Affirming the consequent – otherwise known as a “converse error” – is a logical fallacy that involves taking a true statement and assuming the converse form would be true as well. Formally, we can represent this fallacy as follows: If X is the case, then Y is also the case. Y is true, so X must be true as well. Feb 10, · The fallacy of affirming the consequent occurs when a person draws a conclusion that if the consequent is true, then the antecedent must also be true. . Affirming the consequent is fallacious because an event can be produced by different causes. Seeing the event, we cannot be certain that only one particular cause was involved. If the Chinese wanted peace, they would favour cultural and sporting exchanges. Since they do support these exchanges, we know they want peace.
Formally, we can represent this fallacy as follows:. Here, it is hard to deny the first part: any bird with fewer than two wings would struggle to fly. But the second part is, thankfully given the size of an emu, untrue. In this case, the problem is that having wings is necessary for a bird to fly, but it is not sufficient by itself. Flying birds are also usually lighter than an emu, and the wings of an emu are far t oo small to lift their bodies off the ground.
Subscribe to our newsletter and get writing tips from our editors straight to your inbox. Thus, while the first part of our bird-based example is true, the second part flips the claim while overlooking other factors that enable flight.
This might seem plausible. However, while a fever is a symptom of flu, it is also associated with other conditions. And because the second part of this example does not necessarily follow from the first part, it is fallacious. If you spot an argument like the ones set out above, approach it critically.
Does one statement being true justify believing the converse statement? Or, like with our emu and flu examples, is there something you might have overlooked? Keep in mind, too, that a conclusion drawn by affirming the consequent might be true. Having a fever, for instance, is a reason to suspect someone has flu. But you would need to consider other potential causes for the fever and find evidence to claim it as a fact.
If you take a critical approach to your own writing, on the other hand, you should be able to avoid affirming the consequent. And to make extra sure your arguments are clear, having your work proofread can help. Submit a free trial document today to find out more about how our academic proofreading services work. Post A New Comment. You can also upload a document to get an instant quote. Browse from your device. Drop your file here!
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