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Battle of Tannenberg
The Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought between Britain's Royal Navy Grand Fleet, under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, and the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet, under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer, during the First World vitoriayvitorianos.com battle unfolded in extensive manoeuvring and three main engagements (the battlecruiser action, the fleet. The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter's Farm, was fought on July 1, , between the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, led by Gen. Robert E. Lee, and the Union Army of the Potomac under Maj. Gen. George B. vitoriayvitorianos.com was the final battle of the Seven Days Battles during the American Civil War, taking place on a foot (40 m) elevation of land known as.
Waz of Pharsalus48 bcethe decisive engagement in the Roman civil war 49—45 bce between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great. Having recently conquered and pacified the Gallic tribes, he was stationed in Cisalpine Gaul when he received orders from the Senate battpe relinquish command of his 10 veteran legions. He was loath to surrender the rest of his legions, nine of which were wintering in Gaul. He decided that war was favourable.
The Senate had only two legions in Italia—the two that Caesar had sent—and faltering support in tne north complicated its ability to levy fresh troops. Pompey urged his fellow senators to evacuate Rome and retreat with their army to Brundisium modern Brindisilocated at the heel of the Italian Peninsula. When Caesar reached Rome, then, the city opened its gates to him. By March he had been reinforced with four of his Gallic legions and advanced on Brundisium, but not before Pompey and the Senate abandoned Italia to regroup in Epirus.
He chose to first eliminate the larger army before they could organize. He briefly returned to Rome in April, where he pardoned his political opponents, installed a new Senate, and raised at least 14 legions. Then, leaving a sizeable garrison in Italia, Caesar wht with some of his Shat forces in southern Outcomf before crossing into Hispania.
In the seven months after their flight to Epirus, Pompey and the loyalist senators mustered a formidable army. After wintering at Dyrrhachium, Pompey intended to invade Italy and save the republic from despotism, as his mentor Sulla had done over 30 years earlier.
Caesar hoped to kill this plan in how to remove dark spots on carpet infancy. The Senate expected Caesar to cross the Adriatic in the spring of 48 bcewhen the weather would be warmer and the winds stronger.
They were surprised to find him on the shores of Epirus in January with seven veteran legions. Four legions, commanded by Mark Antonywere prevented from crossing by the strong loyalist fleet and were forced to winter in Brundisium. This setback did not hinder Caesar, though.
He wjat through the region, seizing Apollonia and Oricum along the way to Dyrrhachium. There he hhe fortifications around the city and blockaded it for six months, during which time Antony was able to reach Caesar with the four legions from Brundisium. It was now August. Still aeven, Caesar and his legions slinked away from their camp by night. They then marched east.
Pompey pursued them, likely under duress; his fellow senators were growing anxious and demanded a swift end to what had now been over a year and a half of civil war. Caesar chose to cross over the Pindus Outcomme and into the province of Macedoniawhere he found a fertile valley to feed his troops while he awaited his enemies. Exactly where Pompey camped his legions in this valley—and, accordingly, the name of the ensuing battle—has been hotly debated among scholars, a detail complicated both by discrepancies among ancient accounts and modern archaeological evidence.
Bsttle morning Caesar would edge his legions closer to the hill, and Pompey would respond by moving his men a little farther down the slope.
Caesar refused to meet Pompey on how to setup a forum website disadvantageous ground and was in the process of striking his tents to march elsewhere when he saw that Pompey had inexplicably tne onto the plain. Both sides prepared to engage the following day, August 9. Leaving behind seven cohorts at his camp, Pompey drew up his legions in three lines perpendicular to the Enipeus.
At his disposal were 47, legionaries overall, many of whom were recent recruits. Under his personal command were legions I and Whzt two that Caesar had sent the Senate—and he kept them on his left flank.
Here he also placed his missile troops and cavalry, the latter of which was led by Titus Labienus and numbered nearly 7, men. He positioned his inexperienced Syrian legions in the centre, commanded by his father-in-law, Metellus Scipio. On the right was Lucius Afranius with his seasoned Cilician legion and Spanish cohorts. They were naturally protected by the Enipeus. Caesar possessed a much smaller fighting force. He left two cohorts at his kutcome and advanced to meet Pompey with 22, men drawn into three thinner lines.
In the centre were six srven legions, commanded by Domitius Calvinus. Caesar himself stood on his right flank with legion X and a cavalry force of how long do boiled potatoes take to cook 1, men. They slowed their advance and launched their javelins at the enemy, but loyalists held their positions and fired javelins of their own. Labienus began to divide his horsemen into smaller divisions in preparation for a coordinated flanking maneuver.
However, neither Pompey nor Labienus saw the eight cohorts how to unlock iphone 4g Caesar had planted behind his cavalry. Caesar gave them the signal to attack.
Caesar then ordered his third line to reinforce the fatiguing first and ssven lines; they had been withheld for this purpose, and they struck unease into the hearts of the loyalist legionaries. Pompey ordered a hasty retreat.
Pompey himself donned plain clothes and evaded capture. With the bulk of its army now gone, the exiled Senate was in no position to mount an offensive. Caesar pardoned all his surviving enemies. When hostilities finally abated in 45 bceCaesar waa to Rome o the undisputed victor of the civil war and dictator of the Roman Republic.
He would bear that honour until his own assassination a year later. Battle of Pharsalus. Additional Info. More About Rays Article History. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites.
Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. See Article History. Julius Caesar, marble bust; in the Capitoline Museums, Rome. Pompey, bust c. Roman Civil War Thr. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. This was by no means the end of the war.
Almost at once Caesar was nearly trapped at Alexandria, where he had intervened in a succession…. Julius Caesar: Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49—45 bce. Caesar wintered in Alexandria, fighting with the populace and dallying with Queen Cleopatra. In 47 bce he fought a brief outcom war…. He fled from his camp as the enemy stormed it and made his way to the coast. His supporters were to rally and involve Caesar in strenuous fighting in Africa, Spain, and the East for three more years, but Pompey did not live….
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Initial developments on the Eastern Front
Seven Days is identifying the other former Guard member only by her first name, Meredith. She contends that Blodgett's bad behavior was well-known by his supervisors. Battle of Tannenberg, (August 26–30, ), World War I battle fought at Tannenberg, in what is now northeastern Poland, that ended in a German victory over the Russians. The crushing defeat occurred barely a month into the conflict, but it became emblematic of the Russian Empire’s experience in . 6 Now the gates of Jericho were securely barred because of the Israelites. No one went out and no one came in. 2 Then the Lord said to Joshua, “See, I have delivered Jericho into your hands, along with its king and its fighting men. 3 March around the city once with all the armed men. Do this for six days. 4 Have seven priests carry trumpets of rams’ horns in front of the ark.
The opening encounters on the Eastern Front had been marked by rapid changes of fortune; the greater distances and the greater differences between the equipment of the armies ensured a fluidity which was lacking in the West. The German claw was, indeed, being menaced by a Russian pair of pincers instead. Because the Russians had more than a two-to-one superiority, a combined attack had every chance of destroying the Germans between the two armies.
This was Gen. Yakov Grigoryevich Zhilinsky , who as chief of the general staff until early had made the military convention with France whereby Russia pledged to put , men in the field by the 15th day of mobilization. This arrangement overwhelmed the cumbrous Russian war machine, which caused numerous cracks and local failures when it began moving. It also put a strain on the Russian headquarters staff, which consequently made decisions in a state of nervous flurry.
Along the land frontier two Russian armies had been assembled, the First or Vilna Army six and a half infantry divisions and five cavalry divisions under Gen. Paul von Rennenkampf and the Second or Warsaw Army 10 infantry divisions and three cavalry divisions under Gen. Alexander Samsonov. The two armies formed a group under the higher control of Zhilinsky. The fault of this plan lay not in the conception but in the execution. Its potential value was well proved by the alarm—indeed, the dislocation of mind—caused in the German headquarters when the menace was disclosed.
However, it suffered two natural handicaps, apart from faulty leadership and military unreadiness. Rennenkampf crossed the eastern frontier of East Prussia on August 17 and threw back the bulk seven infantry divisions and one cavalry division of Gen. He had been so hurried on by Zhilinsky that his troops were tired and hungry, their transport incomplete, and the supply services in chaos. Prittwitz was unnerved by the news, though the XX Corps was not. That evening he called two of his staff, Gen.
Max Hoffmann , into his office in the headquarters at Neidenburg now Nidzica, Poland —uncomfortably close to the southern frontier—where his chief of staff, Gen. Georg Friedrich Wilhelm , Graf count von Waldersee, was also present.
Prittwitz, however, curtly told them that the decision rested with him and not with them. He then left the office, leaving them to continue the argument with Waldersee—and, eventually, to persuade him to take bolder measures. This disposition of forces would be the foundation of the Tannenberg maneuver.
On returning to the office, Prittwitz agreed to their moves and spoke no more of retiring behind the Vistula. Not until later did the astonished staff discover the clue to this dramatic upset.
While Prittwitz was out of the office during the discussion on August 20, he had telephoned not only Mackensen and the lines-of-communication authorities to tell them that he was going to retire behind the Vistula but also the Supreme Command—then at Koblenz on the Rhine—and had even told chief of the German General Staff Helmuth von Moltke that he could hold the Vistula line only if he received reinforcements. To crown his nerve-broken folly, he forgot to tell his staff officers of these conversations when he came back, so that they had had no grounds for communication with Moltke about the change of plan.
This force, inferior in strength to the Russians, could not have been decisive. Alfred, Graf von Schlieffen , with discerning insight, had picked this impishly brilliant young captain to go as an observer with the Japanese forces in the Russo-Japanese War. There Hoffmann learned much about the Russian Army—not least that two generals, Rennenkampf and Samsonov, represented dueling factions within the upper levels of command.
He had also learned in Manchuria the incredible carelessness of Russian communication methods. Samsonov, meantime, had been staggering forward, driven on by telegraphic lashes from Zhilinsky, who had jumped to the conclusion that the Germans were doing what Prittwitz had contemplated—retreating to the Vistula.
If they had been linked by mobility, this width might have been an advantage, but with sluggish troops and bad roads it became a danger. Fearing the effect of a further retirement, Ludendorff ordered Gen. The real crisis of the battle, as a whole, came on August The demoralized Russian troops broke in flight without waiting for the German infantry. With its rear closed and its roads congested, the Russian centre XIII, XV, and half XXIII corps dissolved into a mob of hungry and exhausted men, who beat feebly against the ring of fire and then surrendered in the tens of thousands.
The crowning scene of the tragedy was enacted by Samsonov himself, who had moved up from Neidenburg on August 27 to control the battle, only to find himself caught up in the swirling eddies of the retreat. Unable to do anything, he turned and rode south again on August 28, only to get lost in the depths of the forest. In the early morning hours of August 30, he turned aside, and his absence was unnoticed by his staff until a solitary shot rang out.
He had taken his own life rather than survive the disaster; his body was ultimately recovered by German troops. The Russians lost 30, killed or wounded, while the Germans sustained a total of only 13, casualties. The Germans were certainly favoured by Russian mistakes—above all, by the folly in dispersing the fog of war by sending unciphered wireless messages.
Yet if allowance is made for these flashes of light, due account should be taken of the difficulties of campaigning in this region. The German victory at Tannenberg remains a singular achievement, as its scale was unique in the history of the war. Ludendorff was not the designer of victory, and still less Hindenburg. To Hoffmann is due the chief credit of the design, even if Prittwitz and Ludendorff have some share for accepting it in turn.
Still, Tannenberg was not a second Cannae , deliberately planned and carried through to conclusion. The aim from the outset had been to break the force of the Russian invasion, not to surround a Russian army. Indeed, the idea of the double envelopment was an afterthought, which became possible only when Rennenkampf continued to remain passive.
The Germans were also unable to extend their tactical victory at Tannenberg to the strategic level. After Tannenberg and the arrival of two fresh army corps from the Western Front, the Germans turned on the slowly advancing Rennenkampf, whose lack of energy was partly due to his losses at Gumbinnen and to his subsequent lack of information. The invasion of East Prussia had at least, by causing the dispatch of two corps from the west, helped to make possible the French comeback on the Marne.
Battle of Tannenberg. Additional Info. More About Contributors Article History. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login.
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Russian prisoners captured at the Battle of Tannenberg, August World War I Events. Russian troops in the trenches at the East Prussian frontier. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Subscribe Now. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. History at your fingertips.
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